Education Reform International School Choice

Chris Lubienski: Why Do Markets Produce Standardization?

Interesting essay samples and examples on: https://essays.io/dissertation-examples-samples/

Chris Lubienski has done comparative studies of public and private schools for years. In this latest study, he notes the paradox that choice schools tend to become standardized over time, betraying the claim that they would meet the differing needs and interests of students.

DOCUMENT RESUME
ED 439 519 EA 030 327
AUTHOR Lubienski, Chris
TITLE Diversification and Duplication in Charter Schools
PUBTYPE EDRS PRICE
Ontario,Canada,April14-18,19). InformationAnalyses(070) Speches/MetingPapers(150)
DESCRIPTORS
MF01/PCO2 Plus Postage. *CharterSchols;Diversity(Institutional);Educational
IDENTIFIERS
ABSTRACT
Change; *Educational Economics; Elementary Secondary Education;ForeignCountries;FreEnterpriseSystem; Privatization;School Choice Grant Maintained Schols (GreatBritain);*MarketSystems Aproach
Grant-MaintainedSchols:AnExplorationinthePolitical
EconomyofScholChoice. PUBDATE 19-04-0

NOTE

47p.;Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society (Toronto.)

This paper examines the political economy of charter schools to understand the tendencies toward standardization and emulation that these schools exhibit. It draws on the developed model of grant-maintained schools in the United Kingdom as an example of the market model’s evolution in mass education. It analyzes the promise of such approaches to explore reformers’ underlying assumptions and thus offers a window into perspectives that have driven these prolific reforms. The paper contrasts the emerging evidence with the public promises of reformers and contrasts these with the disappointing lack of diversification of options for education consumers. It states that widespread and controversial reforms in education across the globe entailed the introduction of market mechanisms of consumer choice and competition among providers in mass education. The text explores the promise of choice plans and charter schools, the effects of competition, and the reaction to uniformity. It concludes that there is a standardizing tendency inherent in markets that both accompanies and counteracts the potential for diversification that competitive markets can generate. The paper claims that market-oriented reformers generally ignore the constraining properties of competitive markets in their discussion of the potential effects of competition in education. (Containsaproximately25references.)(RJM)

Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made from the original document.

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 20
ofsectionsofthemarket inefect,privatizedsuper-LEAswithprimaryacountabilityto shareholders,notcitizensoreven”consumers.”Thereisaneconomicincentivetolimitthe diversityofaproducttosomextent,becauseofresearch,development,production, distribution,andsuportcosts;asTeryMoenotes,”inovationscostmoney.Sometimes alotofmoney”(citedinMolnar,196,p.72).27Thus,thehated”one-size-fits-al” aproachtoeducationthatcriticsclaimisinherenttopublicontrolisalsolikelythrough thecostsavingfactorsofthe”cokie-cuter”aproachtomasprovisionofeducational services.Thesestandardizingtendenciesarebecomingmorevidentwithgrowthoflarge- scalenterprisessuchastheEdisonProject,TeseracT(formerlyEducationalAlternatives Inc.),AdvantageScholsInc.,orSabisInternationalSchols alofwhicharetryingto increasetheirshareofthecharterscholmarket,andalofwhichaveasetaproachto educatingchildren(Farber,198a;Hofman,198;Pole,198;Rhim,198;Sides& Decker,197;Toch,196;Vine,197).Inded,whenDykgraf&Lewis(198)studied charterscholsrunbymanagementcompaniessuchasthese,theyfoundstrongcentral controlexercisedbycorporateauthorities,andlitleopenesabouttheiractivities,which hinderspublicasesmentoftheirpractices.
Thistendencyfliesinthefaceoftheclaimthatcharterscholswilsharetheirinsightsand inovations.ThepromisewasmotivatedbyaperceptionthatLEAscholsareplaguedby adeadeninguniformity(Peterson,190),andnedinterventionsthatareproduced primarilyintheprivatesector(Coleman,190;West,195).28However,sucha perceptiondoesnotexplainhowalackofcompetitionecesarilyimposesuniformity acros15,0LEAsintheUS.Whatisthestandardizinginfluencefor15,0diferent bureaucraciesandmilionsofclasroms?Infact,theargumentcouldbemadethat, inasmuchasclasromsnowapearsimilaracrosdiferentcontexts,uniformaspectsmay beduetomarketinfluencesonthecuriculum,privatesectorcontrolofemployment posibilitiesforgraduates,theriseofindividualism,thecomodificationofpublic education,andothermarketefectsinstandardizingschols(Hogan,192;Labare, 197).Furthermore,itdeniesthemanyinovationsproducedinthepublicsector,and, moreover,ispremisedonhighlyhypotheticalpresumptionofinherentselfishnesof humanaturethatpositsthatinovationspringsfromtheposibilityofself-enrichment.
ButwhileadvocatesjustifiedcharterslargelyasR&Dcentersforpublicschols,itis becomingincreasinglyaparentthat evenifcharterscholsweretodevelopaplethora ofnewpedagogicalaproaches therearenotadequatemeansavailablethroughwhich otherscholscouldhaveacestothosediscoveries(Wels,etal.,198).Whilemarket-
orientedreformersclaimthatitissimplythefectsofcompetitionthatwilforceLEA scholstoimprove,thelogicofmarketsalsocounteractsanyrolethatcharterorGM
27Yet,thecomonlyapliedbusinesprincipleofeficiencyefectivelylimitstheresourcesrequiredfor inovationandexperimentation(seWelch,198).Inded,ironicaly,themarketizationofapublicsector institutionsuchaspubliceducationrepresentsanoveralstandardizationofoptions,chalengingtheunique aspectsofpublicscholsaspublicinstitutions,andforcingthemtoconformoretothedominant “eficiency”modelofaprivatebusines(seOetle,197). 28However,theasumptionthatinovationsareproducedintheprivatesectorignoresthextenttowhich inovativeideasandinstitutionshaveariseninthepublicsector,andthenexitedthepublicscholsystem (e.g.,Wiliams,19).Furthermore,thereismuchevidencethatmanyGMandcharterscholsused market-orientedreformstosimplyprovideaprivate-typeducationatpublicexpense.IntheUK,thishas benthecasewithGMscholsthatembracethegramarscholcuriculum,forexample.InNorth America,theownerofacharterscholmanagementcompanycaledtheEducationDevelopment Corporation(EDC)claimshedoesnotpursueinovativetechniques,but”usessucesfulChristianschols asaneconomicmodelforEDC’snonreligiouscharterschols”(MackinacCenterforPublicPolicy,197; sealso,Opel,19;Red,194;Sanchez,195;Schnaiberg,19;Simons,19;VanDunk, 198).
2 BESTCOPYAVAILABLE

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&CMSchols 21
scholsmayplayincontributingtotheoveralimprovementofscholing.Thatis,ina competitivemarket,scholssucedorfailbasedonhoweltheyatractandretain studentsrelativetothercompetingschols.Inacasewherecertainscholsare establishedtoproduceinsightsintoimprovingteachingandlearning,butalsoare dependentfortheirsurvivalonatractingconsumers,thereisaninherentincentivenotto shareimprovementsorinsightswithotherschols except,ofcourse,anyotherschols intheircorporatechain,asthecasemaybe.(Ontheotherhand,iftherewereadequate chanelssetuptodiseminateinovations,thefre-riderphenomenonsugeststhatmany schoblswouldnotasumethecostsofinovationifotherscholswildosoandshare withthemthediscoveries.)29
EmulationandDuplicationinConsumerMarkets Whilemarket-orientedreformersjustifytheiragendalargelyonthegroundsthatmarkets creatediversityofoptions,anexaminationinthepoliticaleconomyofconsumermarkets indicatesthattheyareignoringanequalyevidentstandardizingefectofcompetition. Dependingonthecircumstances,acompetitivemarketcanalsohaveconstrainingefectson experimentation,andfosterduplicationinsteadofdiversity.Inadynamicsystemofpublic choice,thelogicofmarketsdictatesthatproviderswiltrytostakeoutpositionsof advantageinordertocomandthepatronageofthemajorityofconsumers.Ifaprovider movestocornerasegmentofthemarket,thereissomeincentiveforotherprovidersalsoto moveinthatdirection,althoughnotquitetothesamextent,inordertocaptureal remainingbusinesuptoandposiblyincludingsomeofthemarketshareoftheirrivals (Hirschman,1970,p.63).Thiscanhavethefectofstandardizingoptionsavailableto consumers,asinasystemofscholchoice.
Forinstance,thisphenomenonisveryevidentinthearenaofpartypoliticsinrecentyears. InboththeUSandtheUK,”liberal/leftist”partiescametopowerlargelybyemulatingtheir oponentsonmanyisues.Ratherthanoferingvotersrealoptions,Clinton’sDemocrats (throughisDemocraticLeadershipCouncil)notonlyatractedvotes,butsimplycornered blocsofvotersbymimickingtheRepublicansoneconomicandsocialquestions.Thus, theytokforgrantedvotersfurthertotheleft,knowingthattherewasnotherviable alternativetowhichthosevoterscouldturn.Blair’snewLabourPartysucesfuly embracedClinton’sstrategyintheUK(Ford,19;Zakaria,198),andtheLiberalsin CanadandotherEnglish-speakingdemocracieshavelargelyembracedmarketprinciples previouslythoughttobethedomainoftheirconservative(clasicaly”liberal”)competitors. Whilesuchtrendsmayindicatethepresumptiononthepartofthesepartiesoftheloyaltyof theirmembers,italsosugeststhatviablealternativesarenotavailabletotemptthese peoplewiththeposibilityofexitingpartiesthatnolongerreflecttheirbeliefs.Regardles, theoveralefectistofervoterslesofaclearchoiceofdiferentoptions,andmany comentatorsfromboththerightandlefthavenotedthatthepoliticalmarketplacecurently
29Onceagain,Coulson(19) asapuremarketadvocate ofersbeterinsightsintotheworkingsof themarket.Whilehewritesoftheincentivesforcharterschols”balancingresearch-and-developmentcosts
againstthenedtokeptuitiondown”(p.305),healsonotesthatthe”onlywaytoenticeducational entrepreneurstotakeontheserisksistoprovidethemwithanincentivethatmakesthefortworthwhile”
(p.318).Yet,whileIagrewithisinsightsintothecorectdynamicsofthemarketpervertedbycharter scholdesigns,Icontinuetodisagrewithisprescriptionthatwemovetowardpurermarketstocorect thebastardizationofmarkettheory.Ifcharterscholsarepublicschols,astheyclaim,thentheyhavea responsibilitytothegreaterpublic,andnotjusttheirimediateclientele.ButunderCoulson’sfremarket model,ashenotes,charterscholswouldbeabletownandprofitfromtheirinovations,andexcludeal otherstudentsfromthenjoymentoftheirbenefits unlestheywerepersonalyabletoafordtopay. Thisistheantithesisofanyconceptionofapublicsystem.Furthermore,itdemeansthefortsandenies theinovationsofalwhoworkforchildrenbecauseofahumanitarianimpulse,insteadasumingthatonly personalgainmotivatesgodworks.
23

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 2
ofersconsumersoptionsthatarelargelyindistinguishable.30Thus,whilestealingisues mayworkmostefectivelyinaduopoly,italsoapearstohavesomefectinmulti-party systems.InHirschman’sframework,isuemulationwilleadtodiscontentof peripheralizedconsumers/voters.31Butduopolisticorevenpolyopolisticpowerssystems canconstrainthatdiscontentmentthroughefectivecoperationexercisedby”competing” parties.Theirconfluenceofinterestsmayleadtointentionalyconcertedefortsor colusioncausedbythefectsoftheircomoninterestsinmaintaininganefective oligarchy.Thatis,evencompetingplayersmaycoperateinesenceinordertoprevent othersfromalsojoiningthegame.Thus,majorpartiesandproducershaveaninterestin themaintainingthe”thirdparty”statusofthirdparties.Whileattimestheymightlokfora minor-partyalyinordertotipthebalanceofpowerintheirfavor,theyalsohavean interestinremainingtheprimarypartnerinanycoalition.
Consumermarketsalsodemonstratethisconstrainingefectofcompetition,whetheritbe PCsandWindowsbothemulatingandcrowdingoutMacintoshproductsfromthe computermarket,VHSreducingandthenridingthemarketofthebeterBetasystems, bokstorechainsmimickingtheservicesofandtheneradicatingsmalneighborhod bokstores,JapaneseproducersintroducingtheminivanonlytohaveUSmanufacturers adoptstheideandthendominatethemarket,orlarge-scalevideochainscrowdingoutthe cornerstore.Whilesimplelogictelsusthattightcompetitioncaninhibitinovationin existingprovidersbylimitingresourcesavailableforexperimentation(whichisriskyand mayentailalos),evidencealsosugeststhataconfluenceofcompetitors’interestsand efortscanalsolimitinovationandoptions.Dunleavy(197,p.3)notesthese standardizingtendenciesforconsumerchoices(from”hamburgersorcomputers”)inwhat hetermsglobal”Macworld”capitalism:”Thescaleofmarketsandcompetitionhas decisivelyescalatedinsomeareas,screningoutlocalsolutionsandcorporationsinfavour oftransnationalcompanies,dominantbrandsandstandardizedsolutions.”32Whilehe notesadiversityofoptionsinsomeareas,thegeneral”resultisthatsingle-marketchoices
30Se,forexample,Fraser,198/19;Pres,196;Reves,197;andSobran,195. 31Hirschman discusingtwo-partysystems sesanycentralizingtendencylimitedbyideological
diferences,alertandvocalactivists,andpracticalconsiderationsofmaximizingvotersuport(ononehalf ofthepoliticalspectrum,withasmuchofanimperialisticforayintotheotherhalfascouldbereasonably puledofwithoutalienatingtheparty’snativebase):”adoptionofaplatformwhichisdesignedtogain votesatthecentercanbecounter-productive”(p.72).Yetacentralizingtendencycanbeunlimitedinan emulativecontextofnoveridingideologicaldiferences thatis,tacitagrement(perhapssubconscious) onmajorunderlyingisues,aswiththeneoliberalDLCapingRepublicansonisueslikeNAFTA,the deathpenalty,gaymariage,andefensespending.Thisunrestrictedcentraltendencyleavesthemore ideologicalyradicalwingofaparty(anditsnon-partyasociates/sympathizers)unrepresented.Voterson thextremearecertainly”captives”ofthemainpartiesintermsoftherealityoftheunlikelihodofsuces oflaunchinganalternativeparty,andthustheirpowerofexitislimited(bytheirnumbers)whiletheir powerofvoicewasoftenamplified(bytheiralertnes).Butwhenideologicalyemulativemainstream partiesdisowntheideologuesatthends,loyaltykepspeoplewithdiscernibleideologicalconvictions fromcreatingapotentialysucesfulpartythatwouldoferaclearlyideologicalalternativetothemasof votersinthecenter.Manysuchdisenfranchised”havetriedtoexertinfluencewithinoneofthemajor parties,havefailed,andlaterdecidedtoworkontheoutside”(p.85).Butmuchoftheirpotentialsuport restsinsimilarlyfrustratedpeoplewhorefusetoleavetheparty,despitethefactthattheirrapidly diminishingvoiceandpotentialorganizationalalternativepointstothexitsign.Thesealertvoters,even morethanthepotentialyfertilepolofinertvotersmoretothecenter,areletingtheirloyaltyprecludea “rational”option.Butthisaparentirationalityservesapurpose,asHirschmanstates:”Even though.partiesinatwo-partysystemareleslikelytomovetowardandresembleachotherthanhas sometimesbenpredicted,thetendencydoesasertitselfonocasion.Themorethisissothemore irationalandoutrightsilydoesthestubornpartyloyaltylok;yetthisispreciselywhenitismost useful.”(p.81)
24 BESTCOPYAVAILABLE
32Or”McWorld”capitalism.

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 23
expand,buttheoveralrangeofchoicesacrosdiferentcountries’marketsmayreduce.” Inhisdiscusion,hepointstotherestaurantindustryasanexampleofaninstanceof globalizationwhichnoneanticipatedfourdecadesago,butwhichasheavily standardizednotjustfodchoices,but”howcustomersareserved.”Ritzer(196)writes ofthe”McDonaldization”ofmarketsocietyasmarketforcespursueandimposea predictabilitythatreducesalhumaneds,desires,andrelationshipstoacomon economicalculus.Otherobserversalsonotethe”Disneyfication”ofculturethatundercuts globaldiversity(Hanigan,198;Seabrok,198).Similarly,inthe”marketplaceof ideas,”severalauthorshaverecognizedtheconstrainingefectsofcorporatecontrolofthe mediainacompetitiveconsumermarket.Mazoco(194,p.5)writesthatthenarowing competitivefieldlimitsthescopeofwhatisconsideredreasonablebythenewsmedia,and thuswhatislegitimizedaspertinentforpopulardiscusionandebate(sealsoBagdikian, 197;Herman&Chomsky,198).
And,ofcourse,sucesbredsemulation.Whetherthroughinovationorthe reintroductionof”triedandtrue”practices(oranyotherinexplicablypopularproductor service),ifsomething”works”intermsofatractingconsumers,competitorswiltryto duplicatethatsucesbyduplicatingwhateverbroughtonthatsuces,uptoandincluding impingingonanyproprietaryrightsofthesucesfuloperation.Thisemulationisreadily aparentfromtheresearchonthechoicesystemintheUK.There,ratherthanengagingin educationalinovations,market-orientedproviderstendtoemulatesucesfulschols institutionscharacterizedbytheirup-marketclientele throughtheintroductionof inovationsoftenperipheraltotheclasromsuchasuniforms,disciplinecodes,symbols oftraditionalism,andotherformsofimagemanagement(Glater,etal.,197).Whenthey makechangesinclasrompractices,theygeneralydonotintroducenewpractices,but reintroduceolderaproachesasociatedwithmorexclusivelitescholing suchasthe academicemphasisofthegramarscholcuriculuminordertoatractthebeststudents withtheleastamountofproblems,whowouldbetheasiesttoeducateandcosttheleast amountofresources.InNorthAmerica,charterscholreformersalsonedtoshow results.JoeNathan(198,p.502),aleadingproponent,warnscharterscholstoconsider “bestpractices”alreadyproveninotherschols:”Charteradvocatesoughttolokat carefulyevaluated,provenaproaches.”Moreover,thejustificationforcharterschols thatcalsforthetodiseminatetheirinovationsasumesthatotherscholswilduplicate theirpractices(althoughitisnotclearwhatincentiveunderthelogicofmarketsmight encouragescholstosharesucesfulsecretswithcompetitors).
Partoftheisueinthesecasesmaybetheilegitimacyoftheasumptionofmarket-oriented reformersthatconsumerdemandshapesmarkets.IntheiradvocacyofcharterandGM schols,proponentsofscholchoicecontendthatscholswilriseinresponseto consumerpreferences.Theyasumethatapre-existinglandscapeofthewantsandneds ofeducationalconsumerswilbereflectedinthegeographyofareactivemarket.Schol choiceadvocatescontendthatconsumerscontrolthemarket.However,thereismuch evidencetoindicatethatthecausalarowalsopointsintheotherdirectionaswel;thatis, marketscanalsoshapeconsumerpreferences.Producerscultivatewantsandnedsin consumers.Inthatrespect,simplywitnesthebilionsthatmarketentitiesinvestin advertisingandimagemanufacturing,particularlyaroundproductsforwhichtherewasno pre-existingdemand.Furthermore,insomemarkets,producersorproviderscanselect theirconsumers.Ineducation,thismeansthatscholschosethestudents.Thishas increasinglybenthecaseintheUK,asscholsnowsetoutcriteriaforprospective studentsinordertobeterpursuetheschol’smisionorphilosophy(Dean,193b;Dean,
193c;Edwards&Whity,197;Fitz,etal.,197;Walford&Pring,196;Whity& Power,197).Whilethishasbenoficialyencouragedinrecentyears,itwasinitialy donethroughcovert-selectiontechniques e.g.,parentinterviews,requiredalegianceto disciplinecodesoraschol’sspecializedmision/philosophy,andsymbolictrapingsof
25

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 24
traditionalism(Dean,192;Francis,190;Glater,etal.,197;Walford,197a;West, etal.,197).ThereisnoreasontoasumethatthesametrendwouldnotocurinNorth Americancharterschols,asmanyscholsnowrequireparentorstudentcontracts, volunterhours,adherencetomisionstatements,orothermeansthatencourageself- segregationbyparentstomaskselectionofstudentsbyschols(Carl,198;Farber, 198a;Farber,198b;McGhan,198;McKiben,19;McKiney,196;Rothstein, etal.,198).Itsemslikelythatregulationstoblockovertselectionwilbelargely inefectual,asmarketcompetitionencouragesorevenforcesparentsandscholstofind waysofsortingthemselves.
Inovation,Diferentiation,andImageManagement Thistendencytowardemulationincompetitivemarketsraisestheisueofthedegreto whichdiferencesbetwenchoicesarereal,orperceivedresultsofimagemanagement. Eveninamorestableorstaticmarketcontext,diferencesbetwencompetitorsin consumermarketsareoftenemphasizedorexageratedinmarketingandpresentation. ThereisnotmuchdiferencebetwenPepsiandCoke,orbetwenFord,Dodge,andGMC trucks.Asexperienceshows,therearetwowaystomakeaprofit:(1)inovationinorder toatracttheconsumerwithabetervalueonabeterproduct,(2)orbetermarketing.In situationswhereconsumerinformationisobscureorinacesible(orcanbemadethatway throughimagemanagement),thelaterismorelikely.So,producerstrytocultivatetheal- importantbrandloyalty(recently,byintroducingtheirproductstothecapturedclienteleof schols).Therefore,advertisingcampaignsoftenfocusonsmaldiferencesofdegres, andnotoverwhelmingsimilaritiesbetwencompetingproducts.Infact,thecoland hamburgerwarssugestthatthebigestcompetitorsareoftenthemostsimilar,withthe majorairlines,networkandlocalnewscasts,andbigthreautomakersalbut indistinguishablefromeachother.Butinsteadoffocusingonthequalityorcost- efectivenesofproductsasrational-choicetheoristswouldlike,thesecompetitorsoften emphasizequestionsofstyle,atitude,andasociationinapealingtocustomersand workingthemarket.3Whilesmaldiferencesandbels-and-whistle(orsmoke-and- miror)inovationsmaybeusefulandcost-efectiveforproducers(oftensimplyto enhanceprofitmargins),itisthefectivenesandcosteficiencyofmarketingthatdeters theincentivetoferrealimprovementsandcostlyinovationsinaproductline.34Itis oftencheapertocultivatediferencesinimage-asociationintheyesofconsumersthanto researchandevelopabeteralternativetoacompetitors’product.Andmarketingisoften (evenusualy)designedtobscurewhetherachangeinaproductisanimprovement,or simplyachange.
Thisaspectinthelogicofmarketswouldalsobepresentforcharterscholscompetingfor per-studentfunding.AsscholsintheUKandtheUSbecomemoreinvolvedin marketingthemselvestopotentialconsumers,itwilbeimportanttonotethextentto whichemphasizediferencesareamateroftruecuricularorpedagogicalinovations,or simplyrepackagingofolderideasandtargetingthemataparticularsegmentor demographicgroupofthemarket.Niche-marketingsimplylimitsproducerstonon-growth areasofthemarket.So,whilerationalconsumersmaysekoutascholbasedon academicriteria,muchevidencesugeststhatthisisnotthecase.Whilechoiceplansin theUKandmanyjurisdictioninNorthAmericaresuportedbythepublicationofleague tablesorotherindicatorsofrelativestudentachievement,itisverydificult,ifnot
3Inafascinatinganalysis,Wink(192,ch.10)observesthisphenomenoninmanyareasofhuman competitionandconflict includingpoliticsandwar asoposingpartiesoftenemploythesamemeans inacontest,therebyemulatingorimitatingeachotherinpractice,andbecomingmorealikeinesence, whilexageratingdiferencesinordertojustifytheirpublicpositions. 34Inded,aproductioncost-orientedincentivenednotbepasedontotheconsumerintheformof savingsexcepttothextentthatitwouldslightlyundercutacompetitor’spriceifatal.
26
BESTCOPYAVAILABLE

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols
imposible,togiveconsumersasnapshotofhowmuchonescholenhancesthe achievementofastudentascomparedtotherschols.Suchefortsarebefudledby problemssuchasfindingtheapropriatecomonmetric,orcontrolingforconfounding variablessuchasper-efectsandsocioeconomicstatus.
25
Inlieuofaneasyindicatorofaschol’sabilitytoenrichastudent’spotential,rational consumersareforcedtorelyonotherevidenceofaschol’sworth.Unfortunately, evidencefromtheUKsugeststhatsuchindicatorsareoftensymbolicreflectionsofre- emergingsocialhierarchiesuniforms,theracialandethnicompositionofaschol,etc.
ratherthanimediateacademicfactors.Inded,thereismuchevidencefromboth NorthAmericandtheUKthatconsumersactualygravitatetowardsthesenon-academic
criterianywaywhenchosingaschol(Bal&Gewirtz,197;Carol&Walford, 197a;Carol&Walford,197b;Glazerman,198;Hirsch,194;Petronio,196;
Smith&Meier,195;Walford,192).Manyifnotmostparentsarenotusualyloking forinovationorevenexcelence.Whilerational-choicetheoristsasumethatconsumers sekthemostefectiveducationaloptionfortheirchildren,real-worldexperienceshows parents constrainedbysuchfactorsasconvenience,transportation,location,work,and theabilityandesiretoparticipateinandvalueachild’seducation lokatotherfactors suchassportsteams,proximitytohomeorwork,tradition,astudentbodythatreflects theirchildracialyoreconomicaly,achild’sdesiretobewithfriends(orawayfrom enemies),andsoforth.Evenrational-choicetheoristimplicitlyafirmthisphenomenon, oftenusingracialcodewordsthatmaskretrenchedracism,orsegregationisttendencies basedonsocial-clas noteducational diferentiation.Forexample,Moe(194,p. 27)debatesthecontentionthatBritishparentsfocusoncriteriaperipheraltoacademic enrichment,denyingtheimportanceof”sportsanduniforms”andinsteadclaimingthat informedpeoplewant”disciplineandorder,achievement,andproximity”(Mano,etal., 198a;Mano,etal.,198b;Schneider,Marschal,Teske,&Roch,198;Vanourek,et al.,197).Whatisnoteworthyabouttheseparentalpreferenceshereisthat,asadvertising increasesinimportanceinacompetitivemarket,thesetendenciessugestthelikelihodthat scholswilfocusonon-academicriteriaintheirmarketingcampaigns,promoting imagesthatdonotfocusimediatelyonpotentialacademicenhancement,butonon- academicriteriasociatedwithracial,ethnic,andsocialclasdiferentiation.
ConstrainingEfectsofConsumerPerceptionsinaCompetitiveMarket Ontheotherhand,whilemarketsshapeconsumers,consumers’perceptionsofwhatare apropriateproductsoftenconstraininovationthroughmarketforces.Parental asumptionsofwhatagodproductorserviceis whethertothpasteorscholing providesincentiveforstandardization,notjustdiversificationofoptions.Ifpeoplethink thatcolashouldbecaramelcolored,thenPepsiClearwilfail.Ifpeoplequatediscipline, rotememorization,andhightestscoreswitha”god”education,thentheromfor inovationinamarketcontextisconstrained.ThiswasthecaseintheUK,wherepopular conceptionsofeducation(atleastforactiveconsumers)meantthatmoretraditionalismand elitismwouldbetheprimary”inovation”drivenbythemarket.Subsequently,intheUK, scholshavebenforcedtopayatentiontotheirimagemanagementthroughmarketing, administration,andpresentation,oftenatthexpenseofeducationalconcerns(Bal& Gewirtz,197;Gewirtz,etal.,195).Thismay,infact,beoneofthecentralelementsof themarketdynamicthatistheconstrainingfactorineducationquasi-marketsinNorth America,asparentalperceptionsofwhat”god”scholingisaremanifestedinaconfining demandfor”back-to-basics”scholing.Kohn(198),forexample,claimsthatafluent andambitiousparentsintheUSdonotwantinovationsintheirchildren’seducation,but, instead,whatarecomonlysenassolid,tried-and-trueducationalpractices.Onthe otherhand,peopleoftencanotreachacomonunderstandingoftruly”inovative” education.GlobalLearningAcademyinCalgarywasestablishedtotry”diferentiated”
27

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 26
learning,an”inovative”aproachtoeducation.Butthescholclosedafterparentsand evendiferentteacherscouldnotagreonwhatthatmeans(Shepard,198).
Discusion Thisesayshouldnotbeunderstodasanargumentagainstthepotentialformarket-
orientedscholstofosterdiverseandinovativeoptions.Instead,Ihaveatemptedto demonstratethattherearestandardizingtendenciesalsoinherentinthemarketmechanisms importedintopubliceducation,andthatacountingforthesetendencieshelpsus understandtheunexceptionalrecordofcharterscholsinpromotingexperimentationin teachingandlearning.However,theprecedingdiscusionraisesbothimplicationsand questionsthatdeservefurtheratention.
Diversity Diverseoptionsareoftenaparentincharterschols,GMscholsandCTCs.Inded,
someofthesescholsapeartoembraceintensiveuseoftechnology,ofervarious pedagogicalaproachessuchasa”back-to-basics”ordiscipline-areaorientedcuriculum,
andsmalerclasandscholsizes.However,whileIhavenotedthatnoneofthese “inovations”arerealynew,anothertrendistowardethnic-basedandhome-scholed instruction.Theseoptionsdefinitelyoferadiferentiatedsetofoptionstoconsumers. Althoughscholsegregation(bylaw,tradition,residency,orevenself-segregation)isnot neworinovative,whatisuniqueaboutsuchtrendsisthattheylegitimizeresegregationof “public”scholsinthepost-Brownv.Boardera.Ofcourse,publicscholshaveben notoriouslysegregatedbyraceandclasinrecentdecades.Butpursuingthediferentiation ofprovisionthroughtheoptionofrace-andethnic-basedscholsrepresentsalegal institutionalizationofthatsegregationthroughtheauspicesofademocraticaly-run institutionthathadoncebenknownasthe”comon”schol.Likewise,”home- instruction”islargelyamovebyhome-scholerstopt-intopublicfinancingofprivately- orientededucationafterhavingexitedpublicschols(se.g.,AmericansUnitedfor SeparationofChurchandState,197;Fin,etal.,197;Rothstein,etal.,198).These newconsumeroptionsraisequestionsaboutthebalanceofpublicly-fundedprivate consumerrightsagainstthepublicinterestincultivatingacomonculture,tolerance,and socialcohesionwithpublicresourcesforthepublicgod.Such”diversity”ofconsumer choicesincharterscholoptionsstandsinstarkcontrasttoliberalefortstoachieve diversityoverthelastseveraldecades.
ContrastingSourcesofInovation Charterscholreformerspubliclyadvancetheiragendasaconsumer-orientedreform measure.However,experiencewithconsumermarketsindicatesthatmarketscanalsobe producer-oriented aphenomenonthatturnsthecausaltablesoncharterreformers’ asumptions.Yetthisfactisignoredbymarket-orientedreformersintheiradvocacyof charterschols.Furthermore,asitbecomesmorevidentthatprivatebureaucraciescanbe justasinflexibleaspublicbureaucracies,onewonderswhythisisnotalsoreflectedinthe rhetoricpromotingcharterschols.Ifgovernmentbureaucraciessquashinovative tendenciesduetoself-interest,donotloyaltiestostockholdersalsodivertinovative potentialitiesthatarisearoundcustomerserviceinprivatebureaucracies?Yetmanycharter scholreformerspersistinadvancingthesimplisticimageofaninovativeprivatesector juxtaposedtoaconstrainingpublicsector.Thisstarksimplificationisreminiscentof Orwel’sAnimalFarmtwofet,bad;fourfet,god(Chomsky&Barsamian,196,p. 121).Butthisasumptionignoresconsiderablevidenceoftheinovativepowersof publicsectors,constrainingfactorsinprivatesectors,andthefolyofautomaticaly opositionalizingthemalofwhichshouldproblematizeandcomplexifysuchclaims (Cohen,1982;Kutner,197;se,e.g.,Coulson,196).
28

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 27
Inded,thisquestionofinovationleadingtodiversityineducationparalelsevidencein theconsumermarketsthatcharterscholreformersoftenhighlight.Buttheirreferencesto thesemarketsonlyapeartoconsideronesideofthequation.Anotherexamplemightbe seninthedialecticalprocesoutlinedbyDarwin’stheoryofevolution(and,inded,much ofmarkettheoryreflectsthisinitssurvival-of-the-fitestethos).Oneofthethrebasic dynamicsonwhichthistheoryoforganicprocesesisbasedisstandardization(asthe synthesis).Thatis,evolutionpositsthatthethesisofuniformityischalengedbyan aberation(theanti-thesis),which,dependingontheconditions,maychalengeoreven overwhelmthestatusquo,resultinginanewsynthesis.Thus,standardizationisjustas muchanesentialpartofsuchaprocesasisinovation,andisnecesaryfortheproces ofchangetounfold.35Bothpublicandprivateinstitutionsareoftenlikenedtorganisms, andtheycanbeflexibleintheiryouth,andstagnantandefensiveinmaturity.Wink (192)usesareligiousanalogytodescribethispatern:institutionsarecreated,falen, and/orredemed.
Market Fundamentalism Religiousimagerymayalsohelpexplainthetreatment,orde-emphasis,ofevidencein market-orientedreformers’advocacyoftheiragenda.Thesingle-mindednesofmarket- orientedreformersinperceivingonlyfavorablevidencefromconsumermarketssugests azealotryoffaithinmarketmechanisms.Inded,theprolificaplicationofmarketmodels topublicscholswasprecededbyverylitlehardevidenceastotheirefectsinmodern education.Whilethiswaspartlyduetothefactthattherearevirtualynocomprehensive andanalogousmodelsfromwhichtodrawpolicyinferencesonhowmarketswouldwork inschols,36itisalsoindicativeofanideologicalfaithinmarketprocesesabelief systemthatasuresthefaithfulofthepowerofmarketdisciplineasacorectiveto waywardpublicsectorinstitutions(thusdiscountingthenedforevidence).Infact,the discourseisliteredwithreferencesto”beliefs”onthisisue,inlieuofhardorcompeling evidenceonthepowerofmarketstodiversifyandinovateprovisionofeducation.37But, aswithanyfundamentalist,market-orientedreformersapearcapableofselective perceptionlimitedtoconfirmingevidence.Theyareabletoignoreorexplainawayany confoundingevidencethatchalengestheirbeliefsinthepowerofmarketstoprovide.38 Charterscholadvocatesdonotdemonstratethatmarketsfosterinovationincharter scholclasroms,becausetheyhavealreadysenenoughevidencefrom(aone-sided viewof)theautoindustryto”prove”thatdiversificationandinovationfalwithinthe purviewofmarkets.Hence,marketreformersareunableorunwilingtoconsider,much lesembrace,contradictorytendenciesinmarketsthatbothdiversifyandstandardize consumer options.
35Naturalprocesesareparticularlypertinenthere,sincemanymarket-orientedreformerspromotetheir agendasanaturalororganicalternativetoartificialstateregulation premisedontheasumptionofa universalhumanaturepreocupiedwithpursuingone’sownself-interest.Forafascinatingdiscusionof standardizationindynamicorganicproceses,seGould(1989). 36Coulsondisputesthelackofevidence(196;194;19). 37Ironicaly,thisissimilartohowscholexpansioningeneralisoftenforwardedbyreligious-likefaith andrhetoricregardingthepowerofeducation(Bowen,19;Meyer,1986;Mockler,194;Tyack,Kirst, &Hansot,1980;Walkom,190). 38AfterDisneyboughttheAmericanBroadcastingCorporation,MexicanovelistCarlosFuenteswrote: “Inaworldtornbyeverykindoffundamentalismreligious,ethnic,nationalistandtribal wemust grantfirstplacetoeconomicfundamentalism,withitsreligiousconvictionthatthemarket,lefttoitsown devices,iscapableofresolvingalourproblems.Thisfaithasitsownayatolahs.Itschurchisneo- liberalism;itscredisprofit;itsprayersareformonopolies;andnowitshalosareMickeyMousears.” (quotedinTheMenonite,196,p.17;sealsoWalkom,190)
29

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 28
Moreover,likeanyfaith,marketfundamentalismestablishesaversionofhumanatureasa universaltruth.Theirclaimthatinovationwilflowfromindividualswhentheyare unleashedtonaturalypursuethenhancementoftheirself-interestdependsonavery debatableasumptionofauniversalhumanature.Whilemarket-orientedreformersclaim thatmaximizingself-interestisthedrivingforceofhumanprogres,thereisalsoevidence tosugestthat,inded,”humanature”isshapedbysocial,cultural,andinstitutional conditionsaswel.Furthermore,itapearsthatsomepeoplearewilingtotakerisksand pursueinovationsoutofphilanthropicandhumanitarianimpulses,orsimplecuriosity.
ResearchandPolicyBorowing Whilethelackofcompelingevidencefromeducationsugeststheideological(asoposed
toempirical)natureofthisreformagenda,theglobalscaleofmarketreformsraisesisues regardingtheroleorresearch,evidence,andideologyacrossocio-politicalcontexts. ParticularlyinthecasesoftheUKandNorthAmerica,thesimilaritiesofthesereforms pointtoeitherintentionalpolicysharingoraplicationsofuniversalaspectsofmarket ideology.Forthemostpart,theUKledthewaywiththesereforms,fromThatcher’s governmentthroughthepresentBlairadministration.YetthegeneralycriticalBritish researchliteraturehasfailedtopenetratetheUSdiscoursetoanygreatextent(Moe,194). Thatis,whilepolicyborowingapearstobeprevalent,policymakersdemonstratea concurentandcurioushesitancytoengageinserious”researchborowing.”Whilepartof thismaybeduetoachronicethnocentrismonthepartofAmericanpolicymakers,such parochialismisincreasinglyinexcusableinatimewhenresearchiswidelyacesible,and contextsandpoliciesarebecomingmoresimilar.Whity,forinstance,whohasbenvocal inhisobservationofthelackofinovationintheUKmarketreforms,hasbenquite wilingtosharehisinsightswithNorthAmericanaudiences(e.g.,Miner,197).Itis unclearwhytherehasnotbenmorediscusioninNorthAmericaoftheUKexperience beforembarkingonrapidandwidespreadmarket-orientedreforms,andonecanonly speculateabouttheknowledgeandintentionsofpolicymakersandmarketreformers.This raisesquestionsabouttheabilityofresearchandevidencetoinfluenceanideologicaly- drivenreformagenda.Butitalsoraisesquestionsabout”hegemonic”controlofthe discourse;thatis,whataretheinterestsofthepeoplewhohavethemicrophone,andhow aretheirinterestsandagendaservedandchalengedbyresearchevidence?
Ontheotherhand,someobserversspeculateonthexistenceof”policynetworks”to explaintheaparentpolicycopyingbetwendiferentcontexts(Carl,194;Whity& Edwards,198).Inded,thereisevidenceoftrans-Atlanticolusionandcoperationof like-mindedthinktanksandotherinterests.Yetwecanotdiscounttheposibilitythat similaritiesinmarket-orientedpoliciesareindicativeoftheideologicalparadigmofthe times reflectingnotsomuchpolicy-borowingaswhatLevin(198)sesasadiseaseor “epidemic”ofsuchpolicymakingintheraitdefines.However,whilehisanalogy discountsintentionallearningandaplicationbypolicymakersofthemarketzeitgeist explanation,otherevidenceindicatesthatrecently,deliberatepolicy-copyingisnow ocuringinaneasterlydirection.AlthoughtheUKsettheprecedentforquasi-market reformsofeducation,thelectionofBlair’sLabourPartysetthestagefortheUSto becomeamodel.ItapearsthatBlairhasmodeledmuchofhispoliticalstrategyonhis neoliberalmentorinClintononisuessuchaswelfarereform(Jones,198;McGuire,
198/19).Ineducation,likewise,there-emergenceof”crisis”rhetoricintheUK sugestsnotadisatisfactionwiththeresultsoftheToryeducationpoliciessomuchasa desiretocontinuetocultivatepopularsuportforreforms(e.g.,BritishBroadcasting Corporation,19).IntheNewStatesman aforumforNewLabour”modernizers” Bilefsky(198)recentlyadvancedtheposibilityofemulatingUSfor-profitmodelfor charterscholsintheUK.Nowitapearsthatthismodelwilbeimportedasthe corectivedisciplinarianforporlyperformingschols(MacLeod,19a;MacLeod,
19b;Raferty,19),therebylegitimizingthelocationofblameasthefaultofindividual 30

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 29
schols(seThrup,198).Moreover,theEdisonProjecthasplansforinternational expansion,includingtheUK(Walsh,198a).
Questions for Further Investigation Thisexplorationalsoraisesseveralquestionforwhichasearchforanswersisbeyondthe scopeofthispaper.Isuesdeservingoffurtheratentioninclude:
Whatmarketconditionspromoteitherthediversificationorstandardizationof consumeroptions?Whatconditionssuportorconstraininovations?Towhatextentcan thoseconditionsbemanipulatedthroughpolicyinstruments?Howouldtheyaplyto educationquasi-markets?
WhatprecedentsareavailableregardingpublicfinancingofR&Defortsby privateproviders,particularlyexamplesthatspeaktothepotentialbenefitsandangers
inherentinthecharterscholmodel?Whilepublicmoneyhaslongonetonon-profit researchfoundationsanduniversities,whatlesonscanbelearnedfromthexamplessetin publicresourcesandprerogativesgoingtofor-profitendeavors?Somemightclaimthatthe defenseindustry,forexample,hasabuseditspositionwithwastefulandfraudulentuseof publicmoniesforresearchandevelopment(e.g.,MultinationalMonitor,19).Others mightpointtothegeneralbeneficialefectsofpublicfunding,proprietaryalowances,or privateprerogativesgrantedtoprivatendeavorsinpharmaceuticalresearch,forinstance (e.g.,Tulock,196).
Towhatextentdoestheparticipationorpenetrationofinvestmentcapitalpromoteor constraininovationsinmarket-orientedschols?Dosucesfulinvestmentcapital operationstendtobecomecautious,lokingforwaystomaintainposition?Oraresuch endeavorsmorelikelytopursuerisksandsuportentrepreneurialeforts?(Onthistrendin education,seWalsh,198b)
Whatistheroleofthecomongodinconstrainingandcultivatinginovationand diversification?Furthermore,whatistheroleofthestateorthepublicindefiningthe comongodanditsaplicationtothisquestion?Thereapearstobeapresumptionthat diversificationisinherentlygod.Butaremorechoicesalwaysbeter?Towhatextent doesthediversificationofconsumeroptionsencourageamovetowardthelowestcomon denominator,andrivedownthegeneralqualityofchoices?Forexample,some neoconservativesmightclaimthestatehasaninterestinregulatingthentertainment industrytothextentthatthepursuitofprofitspromoteslicentiousnes,hedonism,andbad taste.Similarly,healthadvocatesmightmakeaparalelclaimregardingthedutyofthestate tomonitororregulatethefastfodortobacoindustries,therebyconstrainingconsumer choices.Abeterexample,perhaps,involvesconsumerrightsintheautoindustry. Benetetal.(198)claimthatamonopolisticDetroitautoindustryfailedtohedconsumer preferencebybuildingtomany”expensive,gas-guzlingvehicles”inthe1970sand
1980s(p.28).WhiletheDetroitautoindustrydideventualyrespondtothechalenge posedbymorefuel-eficientJapaneseimports,recenttrendsindicatethat atleast partialybecauseofconsumerdemandandmarketingalautomakersarenowbuilding more”expensive,gas-guzlingvehicles”thaneverbefore,aslighttrucksandsportutility vehiclesnowoutnumbercarsinewvehiclesales.Doesanyoneclaimthatmore dangerous,leseficient,morepolutingvehicles(drivenbyconsumerpreferenceand imagemanufacturing)enhancethecomongod?Theagregatefectsmaybe detrimentaltoal.Butwhatistheroleofthestateandthepublicsetagainsttherightsofthe consumerinthisquestion?Theanswerwouldhaveimplicationsfortheroleofthestate andpublicintheregulationofconsumerchoiceandcompetitiveprovisioninmarket- orientededucation.
Finaly,whatistheapropriateroleofthestateinademocraticsocietyinrequiring rationalchoice?Theimplicationsofthisquestionareimportant.Sinceitisnotalways cleartoconsumerswhenevermarketingrepresentsinformationoninovationsorthe obfuscationofalackofimprovements,doesthestatehavearoleinregulatingthis informationintheinterestoffuldisclosure?Ifafre-marketsocietyispremisedonthe
31

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 30
fre-flowofinformationtoalowfulexerciseofrationalchoice,doesthestatenedto intervene,ironicaly,inordertodefendthelaisez-fairelementsinherentinacompetitive systemofinformation-basedchoice?Furthermore,doesthestatenedtorequirethe provisionoftruechoice,ortheguaranteofarangeofoptions,ifmarketfailureconstrains thoseaspectsofasystemofconsumerchoiceinanarealikeducation?
Inconclusion,thisesaydemonstratesthatthereisastandardizingtendencyinherentin marketsthatbothacompaniesandcounteractsthepotentialfordiversificationthat competitivemarketscangenerate.Thisanalysisisanatempttoprovideamorebalanced viewofthelogicaldynamicsofmarketprocesesineducationthanthatwhichisnow evidentinpolicydiscourseofchoiceineducation.Thus,whilenotdisputingthatthereare someconomicincentivesforinovationandexperimentationembededinthelogicof markets,thexamplesdiscusedhereindicatethattendenciesneglectedinpolicydiscourse canalsohaveoposingefects.Market-orientedreformersgeneralyignorethe constrainingpropertiesofcompetitivemarketsintheirdiscusionofthepotentialefectsof competitionineducation.Theirasumptionsofdiverseandinovativeoptionsareoverly optimisticandsimplistic.Inlieuofevidenceontheworkingsofmarketmechanismsin education,theymakeone-sidedalusionstoconsumermarkets,orideologicalasumptions abouthowmarketsshouldworkineducation.
ThexperiencesofcharterscholreformersinNorthAmericahasledtoareconfiguration oftheclaimsforcharterschols.Premisedontheclaimthatpublicscholclasroms wereinherentlyunproductivebecauseofbureaucraticLEAgovernance,charterschol reformerspromisedthatachangeingovernancewouldleadtoinovationsinthe clasrom.Asreal-worldproblemsandcompetitivemarketsdynamicsconstraintheability todeliverinovations,theyefectivelyretracttheirpromiseofclasromexperimentationin favorofthemoreasilyatainablegoalofoferingoptionsinvariouslocalities.Reformers ignorethexamplesofcompetitivequasi-marketsintheUK,andfailtotakeamore balancedviewofconsumermarkets.Thisanalysiscalsintoquestiontheclaimthatthe lackofeducationalinovationwasunpredictable.Thus,whilepromisesofeducational inovationcanbesenasharmlesorwel-intentionedinthemselves,theactual standardizationtrendsexposetheimprecisionofsuchclaims.Andtheirpredictability highlightstheservicethatthosefalseclaimsprovidedforinvestorsinopeningupublic educationasamarketforprofit-makingventures.
REFERENCES
Aldana,R.(197).WhentheFre-MarketVisitsPublicSchols:AnsweringtheRol CalforDisadvantagedStudents.NationalBlackLawJournal,15(1),26-86.
Alexander,K.L.(197).PublicScholsandthePublicGod.SocialForces,76(1),1- 30.
Alter,J.(196,November1).SetingaStandard:Finaly,aCityandItsMayorTakea CripledScholSystemHead-On.Newswek,p.36.
AmericanLegislativeExchangeCouncil.(19,February10).NationwideGrowthin CharterSchols.EducationWek,p.4.
AmericansUnitedforSeparationofChurchandState.(197,February).CharterSchols SparkControversyinArizona,D.C.Church&State,p.17-9.
32

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 31
Anderson,L.,&Marsh,J.(198).EarlyResultsofaReformExperiment:Charter ScholsinCalifornia.PaperpresentedattheanualconferenceoftheAmerican EducationalResearchAsociation,SanDiego.
ArizonaEducationAsociation.(198,March/April).ChartingaChangeofCourse:The God,theBadandtheUglyinArizona’sCharterSchols.AEAdvocate,p.14-5.
Ascher,C.,Berne,R.,&Fruchter,N.(196).HardLesons:PublicScholsand Privatization.NewYork:TwentiethCenturyFundPres.
AsociatedPres.(19,March16).MoreChartersinBoston.ChristianScience MonitorElectronicEdition.RetrievedontheisuedatefromtheWorldWideWeb:
.
Bagdikian,B.H.(197).TheMediaMonopoly(5thed.).Boston:BeaconPres.
Bagley,C.(196).BlackandWhiteUniteorFlight?TheRacialisedDimensionof ScholingandParentalChoice.BritishEducationalResearchJournal,2(5),569-80.
Bal,S.J.(193).EducationMarkets,ChoiceandSocialClas:TheMarketasaClas StrategyintheUKandtheUSA.BritishJournalofSociologyofEducation,14(1),3-19.
Bal,S.J.,&Gewirtz,S.(197).GirlsintheEducationMarket:Choice,Competition andComplexity.GenderandEducation,9(2),207-2.
Barnes,R.D.(197).BlackAmericandScholChoice:ChartingaNewCourse.Yale LawJournal,106(8),2375-409.
Bartlet,W.(193).Quasi-MarketsandEducationalReforms.InJ.LeGrand&W.Bartlet (Eds.),Quasi-MarketsandSocialPolicy(p.125-53).London:Macmilan.
Bast,J.L.,&Harmer,D.(197).TheLibertarianCaseforVouchersandSome ObservationsontheAnti-VoucherSeparationists(PolicyAnalysis269):CatoInstitute.
Benet,W.J.,Fair,W.,Fin,C.E.,Flake,F.H.,Hirsch,E.D.,Marshal,W.,& Ravitch,D.(198).ANationStilatRisk.PolicyReview(90),23-9.
Bilefsky,D.(198,Welcometothe(L)earningZone.NewStatesman,p.18-9.
Bolick,C.(198a,May/June).BlockingtheExits:LibertarianOpositiontoSchol VouchersIsanAtackonFredom.PolicyReview,p.42-5.
Bolick,C.(198b,April6).CharterReformer.NationalReview,p.42-4.
Bowen,R.W.(19,January13).CharterSchols,ThenWhat.TheNewYorkTimes. RetrievedontheisuedatefromtheWorldWideWeb:
.
Boyd,W.L.(196,October23).The’LoyalOposition’andtheFutureofBritishand AmericanScholReform.EducationWek,p.32,6.
Brandl,J.E.(198).GovernanceandEducationalQuality.InP.E.Peterson&B.C. Hasel(Eds.),LearningfromScholChoice(p.5-81).Washington,DC:Brokings InstitutionPres.
3

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 32
Brighouse,H.(197).TwoPhilosophicalErorsConcerningScholChoice.Oxford ReviewofEducation,23(4),503-10.
BritishBroadcastingCorporation.(19,January1).’WoryingGap’inNumeracy Drive.BCNews.RetrievedontheisuedatefromtheWorldWideWeb: .
Brown,J.(198,April26).ALotIsatStakeinScholsOperatedbyNobelEducation Dynamics.TheBufaloNews,p.B15.
Buechler,M.(197,September).CharterScholsSoFar.TheEducationDigest,p.60- 3
Carl,B.(198).CauseforOptimismandCaution:Michigan’sCharterSchol Experience,DisadvantagedYouth,andtheFutureofPublicEducation.Paperpresentedat
theanualconferenceoftheSociologyofEducationAsociation,Monterey,CA.
Carl,J.(194).ParentalChoiceasNationalPolicyinEnglandandtheUnitedStates. ComparativeEducationReview,38(3),294-32.
Carnoy,M.(198,March/April).DoVouchersImproveEducation?DolarsandSense, p.24-6.
Carol,S.,&Walford,G.(196).APanicaboutScholChoice.EducationalStudies, 2(3),393-407.
Carol,S.,&Walford,G.(197a).TheChild’sVoiceinScholChoice.Educational Management&Administration,25(2),169-80.
Carol,S.,&Walford,G.(197b).Parents’ResponsestotheScholQuasi-Market. ResearchPapersinEducation,12(1),3-26.
CenterforEducationReform.(19).CharterScholHighlightsandStatistics: Washington,DC:Author.RetrievedonMarch24,19fromtheWorldWideWeb: .
Chity,C.(197).PrivatisationandMarketisation.OxfordReviewofEducation,23(1), 45-62.
Chomsky,N.,&Barsamian,D.(196).ClasWarfare:InterviewswithDavid Barsamian.Monroe,ME:ComonCouragePres.
Chub,J.,&Moe,T.(192).ALesoninScholReformfromGreatBritain. Washington,DC:BrokingsInstitute.
Chub,J.E.,&Moe,T.M.(190).Politics,Markets,andAmerica’sSchols. Washington,DC:BrokingsInstitution.
Clinton,W.J.(197).PresidentClinton’sCaltoActionforAmericanEducationinthe 21stCentury.RetrievedonAugust1,198fromtheWorldWideWeb: .
34

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 3
Clinton,W.J.(19).StateoftheUnionAdres.TheNewYorkTimesontheWeb. RetrievedonJanuary20,19fromtheWorldWideWeb: .
Cohen,D.K.(1982).PolicyandOrganization:TheImpactofStateandFederal EducationalPolicyonScholGovernance.HarvardEducationalReview,52(4),474-9.
Coleman,J.S.(190).Choice,ComunityandFutureSchols.InW.H.Clune&J.F. Wite(Eds.),ChoiceandControlinAmericanEducation,VolumeI:TheTheoryof
ChoiceandControlinEducation(Vol.1,p.ix-xi).London:Falmer.
Coulson,A.(196).MarketsVersusMonopoliesinEducation:TheHistoricalEvidence. EducationPolicyAnalysisArchives,4(9).
Coulson,A.J.(194).HumanLife,HumanOrganizationandEducation.Education PolicyAnalysisArchives,2(9).
Coulson,A.J.(19).MarketEducation:TheUnknownHistory.NewBrunswick,NJ: TransactionPublishers.
Crozier,G.(197).EmpoweringthePowerful:ADiscusionoftheInterelationof GovernmentPoliciesandConsumerismwithSocialClasFactorsandtheImpactofThis uponParentInterventionsintheirChildren’sScholing.BritishJournalofSociologyof Education,18(2),187-20.
David,M.(192).EducationReforminBritainandtheUnitedStates.InR.F.Arnove, P.G.Altbach,&G.P.Kely(Eds.),EmergentIsuesinEducation:Comparative Perspectives(p.215-28).Albany,NY:StateUniversityofNewYorkPres.
Davies,S.,&Gupy,N.(197).GlobalizationandEducationalReformsinAnglo- AmericanDemocracies.ComparativeEducationReview,41(4),435-59.
Dean,C.(191,June7).FirmsUnexcitedbyRevolution.TimesEducational Suplement,p.4.
Dean,C.(192,April10).Opt-OutScholsDeny`Back-DorSelection’.Times EducationalSuplement,p.1.
Dean,C.(193a,September24).ChristiansBlazeaGMTrail.TimesEducational Suplement,p.5.
Dean,C.(193b,April9).PromiseofWiderChoiceChalenged.TimesEducational Suplement,p.4.
Dean,C.(193c,July16).SelectionRulesAlowTalent-Spoting.TimesEducational Suplement,p.8.
Dean,C.(195,September29).SlowStartforBusinesInvestment.TimesEducational Suplement,p.7.
Dean,C.,&Burstal,E.(195,October27).MajorPresedToCutOutCouncils: ProposalToFundAlScholsDirectfromWhitehal.TimesEducationalSuplement,p. 3.
35

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 34
Dem,R.(194).FreMarketersorGodCitizens?EducationalPolicyandLay ParticipationintheAdministrationofSchols.BritishJournalofEducationalStudies,42 (1), 23-37.
DeWese,P.(194).TheProcesofEducationalReforminMichigan.Journalof Education,176(2),29-35.
Dobin,M.(197,June).WhatDidWeEarninScholToday.TheCanadianForum, p.17-23.
Doyle,D.P.(194,October).TheRoleofPrivateSectorManagementinPublic Education.PhiDeltaKapan,p.128-32.
Dunleavy,P.(197).TheGlobalizationofPublicServicesProduction:CanGovernment Be’BestintheWorld’?InA.Masey(Ed.),GlobalizationandMarketizationof
GovernmentServices:ComparingContemporaryPublicSectorDevelopments(p.16- 46).NewYork:St.Martin’sPres.
DurantI,W.C.(197).TheGiftofaChild:ThePromiseofFredom:Creative AproachestoLearning,Teaching,andScholing.TheFreman,47(6),360-64.
Dykgraf,C.L.,&Lewis,S.K.(198,October).For-ProfitCharterSchols:Whatthe PublicNedstoKnow.EducationalLeadership,p.51-4.
EducationComisionoftheStates.(195).CharterSchols:WhatAreTheyUpTo? Denver, CO: Author.
Edwards,T.,&Whity,G.(192).ParentalChoiceandEducationalReforminBritain andtheUnitedStates.BritishJournalofEducationalStudies,40(2),101-17.
Edwards,T.,&Whity,G.(197).SpecialisationandSelectioninSecondaryEducation. OxfordReviewofEducation,23(1),5-15.
Farber,P.(198a,July1).Boston:RenaisanceCharterSchol.TheAmerican Prospect,p.48-50.
Farber,P.(198b,March).TheEdisonProjectScoresandStumblesinBoston.Phi DeltaKapan,p.506-12.
Ferick,T.(19,February24).CharterScholsRocktheBoat.ThePhiladelphia Inquirer.RetrievedontheisuedatefromtheWorldWideWeb: .
Fin,C.E.(196a,August24).BeatingUponCharterSchols.TheNewYorkTimes. RetrievedonAugust1,198fromtheWorldWideWeb: .
Fin,C.E.(196b,August24).Teachersvs.Education.TheNewYorkTimes. RetrievedonAugust1,198fromtheWorldWideWeb:
.
Fin,C.E.(197,September/October).Learning-FreZones:FiveReasonsWhySchol ReformsDisapearWithoutaTrace.PolicyReview,p.34-9.
36

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 35
Fin,C.E.,&Gau,R.L.(198).NewWaysofEducation.ThePublicInterest(130), 79-92.
Fin,C.E.,&Mano,B.V.(198,September).SuportYourLocalCharterSchol. PolicyReview,p.18-25.
Fin,C.E.,Mano,B.V.,Beirlein,L.A.,&Vanourek,G.(197,September15).The NewSchol.TheNationalReview,p.48-50.
Fin,C.E.,Mano,B.V.,&Bierlein,L.A.(196,November/December).TheEmpire StrikesBack:SensingaThreat,PublicEducation’sMonopolistsAreSandbagingCharter Schols.TheNewDemocrat.RetrievedonAugust1,198fromtheWorldWideWeb: .
Fitz,J.,Halpin,D.,&Power,S.(193).Grant-MaintainedSchols:Educationinthe MarketPlace.London:KoganPage.
Fitz,J.,Halpin,D.,&Power,S.(197).’BetwenaRockandaHardPlace’:Diversity, InstitutionalIdentityandGrant-MaintainedSchols.OxfordReviewofEducation,23(1),
17-30.
Ford,P.(19,February12).Europe’sRightSeksNewPitch.ChristianScience MonitorElectronicEdition.RetrievedontheisuedatefromtheWorldWideWeb:
.
Francis,M.(190).RaceandtheEducationReformAct.TheUrbanReview,2(2), 15-30.
Fraser,M.(198/19,December28/January4).TheRightDirection.Newswek International.RetrievedonFebruary1,19fromtheWorldWideWeb:
.
Friedman,M.(194).TheCaseforChoice.InK.L.Bilingsley(Ed.),VoicesonChoice: TheEducationReformDebate(p.91-101).SanFrancisco:PacificResearchInstitutefor
PublicPolicy.
Friedman,M.(195).PublicSchols:MakeThemPrivate(BriefingPaper23):Cato Institute.
Friedman,M.,&Friedman,R.(1980).FretoChose:APersonalStatement.New York:HarcourtBraceJovanovich.
Garcia,G.F.,&Garcia,M.(196).CharterSchols:AnotherTop-DownInovation. EducationalResearcher,25(8),34-6.
Garn,G.(198,October).TheThinkingBehindArizona’sCharterMovement. EducationalLeadership,p.48-51.
Gerson,M.J.(197,November10).TheHopsFactor:WhyConservativeTownsAre UninterestedinPrivate-ScholChoice.U.S.News&WorldReport,p.60.
Gerstner,L.V.,Semerad,R.D.,Doyle,D.P.,&Johnston,W.B.(194).Reinventing Education:EntrepreneurshipinAmerica’sPublicSchols.NewYork:Duton.
37

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 36
Gewirtz,S.,Bal,S.J.,&Bowe,R.(195).Markets,ChoiceandEquityinEducation. Buckingham,UK:OpenUniversityPres.
Gintis,H.(195).ThePoliticalEconomyofScholChoice.TeachersColegeRecord, 96(3),462-51.
Glas,G.V.(194).ScholChoice:ADiscusionwithHerbertGintis.Education PolicyAnalysisArchives,2(6).
Glas,S.R.(197).MarketsandMyths:AutonomyinPublicandPrivateSchols. EducationPolicyAnalysisArchives,5(1).
Glasman,J.K.(198,April).ClasActs.Reason,p.24-30.
Glater,R.,Wods,P.A.,&Bagley,C.(197).Diversity,DiferentiationandHierarchy: ScholChoiceandParentalPreferences.InR.Glater,P.A.Wods,&C.Bagley(Eds.), ChoiceandDiversityinScholing:PerspectivesandProspects(p.7-28).London: Rout ledge.
Glazerman,S.(198).ScholQualityandSocialStratification:TheDeterminantsand ConsequencesofParentalScholChoice.Paperpresentedattheanualconferenceofthe AmericanEducationalResearchAsociation,SanDiego.
Gordon,L.,&Whity,G.(197).Givingthe’HidenHand’aHelpingHand?The RhetoricandRealityofNeoliberalEducationReforminEnglandandNewZealand.
ComparativeEducation,3(3),453-68.
Gould,S.J.(1989).WonderfulLife:TheBurgesShaleandtheNatureofHistory(1st ed.).NewYork:W.W.Norton.
Guthrie,J.W.,&Pierce,L.C.(190).TheInternationalEconomyandNational EducationReform:AComparisonofEducationReformsintheUnitedStatesandGreat Britain.OxfordReviewofEducation,16(2),179-205.
Gutman,A.(1987).DemocraticEducation.Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPres.
Halpern,K.,&Culbertson,E.R.(194).BlueprintforChange:CharterSchols. Washington,DC:DemocraticLeadershipCouncil.
Hanan,B.(197,August/September).PrivateStateSchols.ArenaMagazine,p.7-9.
Hanigan,J.(198,December).FantasyCities.TheNewInternationalist,p.20-2.
Hartocolis,A.(19,February14).InaReligiousModel,SedsforaCharterSchol. TheNewYorkTimesontheWeb.RetrievedonFebruary16,19fromtheWorldWide Web:.
Hasel,B.C.(198).CharterSchols:PoliticsandPracticeinFourStates.InP.E. Peterson&B.C.Hasel(Eds.),LearningfromScholChoice(p.249-71).Washington, DC:BrokingsInstitutionPres.
HeritageFoundation.(195,July/August).Speaker’sCorner.Busines/Education Insider:HowBusinesCanReformEducation,p.4.
38

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 37
Herman,E.S.,&Chomsky,N.(198).ManufacturingConsent:ThePoliticalEconomy oftheMasMedia(1sted.).NewYork:PantheonBoks.
Hes,F.M.(198).PolicyChurnandthePlightofUrbanScholReform.InP.E. Peterson&B.C.Hasel(Eds.),LearningfromScholChoice(p.107-29).Washington, DC:BrokingsInstitutionPres.
Hil,D.(19,February).WouldYouBuyanEducationfromThisMan?Teacher Magazine,p.26-31.
Hil,P.T.,Pierce,L.C.,&Guthrie,J.W.(197).ReinventingPublicEducation:How ContractingCanTransformAmerica’sSchols.Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPres.
Hirsch,D.(194).Schol:AMaterofChoice.Paris,Washington,DC:Centrefor EducationalResearchandInovation,OrganisationforEconomicCo-Operationand Development.
Hirschman,A.O.(1970).Exit,VoiceandLoyalty:ResponsestoDeclineinFirms, Organizations,andStates.Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPres.
Hodge,M.(197,November).WeNedOurPublicSchols.NewStatesman,p.12- 3
Hofman,M.(198,June).Upstarts(New-BizWatch):StakingOutaShareofPublic- ScholGold.Inc.,p.25-7.
Hogan,D.(192).”.thesilentcompulsionsofeconomicrelations”:Marketsandthe DemandforEducation.EducationalPolicy,6(2),180-205.
Hok,0.(197,May19).Let’sGetFactsStraightonCharterSchols.Crain’sDetroit Busines.RetrievedonAugust1,198fromtheWorldWideWeb:
.
Horn,J.,&Miron,G.(19).EvaluationoftheMichiganPublicScholAcademy Initiative(FinalReport):TheEvaluationCenter,WesternMichiganUniversity.
Hughes,M.(197).TheNationalCuriculuminEnglandandWales:ALesonin ExternalyImposedReform?EducationalAdministrationQuarterly,3(2),183-97.
Jacobson,L.(197,ChartingtheCharters:AsCharterScholsSweptheCountry,the BigQuestionforResearchesis:DotheyWork?TeacherMagazine,p.12-5.
Johnston,R.C.(19,March10).Reporter’sNotebok:VouchersTakeCenterStage DuringNCSLFinanceSeminar.EducationWek,p.15.
Jones,G.(198,October29).Shake-UpTargetsWelfareCulture.TheTelegraph. RetrievedonFebruary15,19fromtheWorldWideWeb: .
Kearns,D.T.,&Doyle,D.P.(198).WiningtheBrainRace:ABoldPlantoMakeOur ScholsCompetitive.SanFrancisco:InstituteforContemporaryStudiesPres.
39

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols
Khouri,N.,Kleine,R.,White,R.,&Cumings,L.(19).Michigan’sCharterSchol Initiative:FromTheorytoPractice(FinalReport):PublicSectorConsultants,Inc.,& MAXIMUS, Inc.
Kohn,A.(198,April).OnlyForMyKid:HowPrivilegedParentsUndermineSchol Reform.PhiDeltaKapan,p.568-78.
Kutner,R.(197).EverythingForSale:TheVirtuesandLimitsofMarkets.NewYork: Knopf.
Labare,D.F.(197).HowtoSucedinScholWithoutRealyLearning:The CredentialsRaceinAmericanEducation.NewHaven,CT:YaleUniversityPres.
Lacayo,R.,Donely,S.B.,&Edwards,T.M.(197,October27).They’lVouchfor That.Time,p.72-4.
Levin,B.(197).TheLesonsofInternationalEducationReform.JournalofEducation Policy,12(4),253-6.
Levin,B.(198).AnEpidemicofEducationPolicy:(What)CanWeLearnfromEach Other?ComparativeEducation,34(2),131-41.
Light,D.W.(197).FromManagedCompetitiontoManagedCoperation:Theoryand LesonsfromtheBritishExperience.TheMilbankQuarterly,75(3),297.
MackinacCenterforPublicPolicy.(197,Fal).Huizenga:EducationEntrepreneur, MackinacCenterSuporter.Impact!,p.8.
MacLeod,A.(19a,February16).BritainMayTakeaBigStepawayfromtheWelfare State.ChristianScienceMonitorElectronicEdition.Retrievedontheisuedatefromthe WorldWideWeb:.
MacLeod,A.(19b,March9).InBritain,aMoveTowardPrivatizingPublicSchols. ChristianScienceMonitorElectronicEdition.RetrievedontheisuedatefromtheWorld WideWeb:.
Mano,B.V.,Fin,C.E.,Bierlein,L.A.,&Vanourek,G.(198a).CharterSchols: AcomplishmentsandDilemas.TeachersColegeRecord,9(3),537-58.
Mano,B.V.,Fin,C.E.,Bierlein,L.A.,&Vanourek,G.(198b,March).How CharterScholsAreDiferent:LesonsandImplicationsforaNationalStudy.PhiDelta Kapan,p.489-98.
Mazoco,D.W.(194).NetworksofPower:CorporateTV’sThreattoDemocracy. Boston,MA:SouthEndPres.
McAlister,I.,&Vowles,J.(194).TheRiseofNewPoliticsandMarketLiberalismin AustraliandNewZealand.BritishJournalofPoliticalScience,24(3),381-403.
McConaghy,T.(198,March).InCanada:Ontario’sEducationWarFarfromOver.Phi DeltaKapan,p.52-3.
McGhan,B.(198,April).ChoiceandCompulsion:TheEndofanEra.PhiDelta Kapan,p.610-3.
38
40

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols
39
McGin,N.F.(192).ReformingEducationalGovernance:Centralization/ Decentralization.InR.F.Arnove,P.G.Altbach,&G.P.Kely(Eds.),EmergentIsuesin Education:ComparativePerspectives(p.163-72).Albany,NY:StateUniversityofNew YorkPres.
McGrif,D.(196,November4).ScholChoice:MichiganKids,ParentsDeserve EducationOptions.DetroitFrePres.RetrievedonJanuary12,198fromtheWorld WideWeb:.
McGuire,S.(198/19,December28/January4).BraveNewLeftWorld.Newswek International.RetrievedonFebruary10,19fromtheWorldWideWeb:
.
McKiben,G.(19,February3).Charter-ScholTurmoilAleged.DenverPost. RetrievedontheisuedatefromtheWorldWideWeb: .
McKiney,J.R.(196,October).CharterSchols:ANewBarierforChildrenwith Disabilities.EducationalLeadership,p.2-6.
McLean,M.,&Voskresenskaya,N.(192).EducationalRevolutionfromAbove: Thatcher’sBritainandGorbachev’sSovietUnion.ComparativeEducationReview,36
(1), 71-90.
Meadmore,D.,&Symes,C.(197).KepingUpApearances:UniformPolicyfor ScholDiversity?BritishJournalofEducationalStudies,45(2),174-86.
Menonite.(196,March26).[notitle].TheMenonite,p.17.
Meyer,J.W.(1986).TypesofExplanationintheSociologyofEducation.InJ.G. Richardson(Ed.),HandbokofTheoryandResearchfortheSociologyofEducation(p. 341-59).NewYork:GrenwodPres.
Milken,M.,Michaels,J.W.,&Berman,P.(192,March16).MyStory Michael Milken.Forbes,p.78-10.
Miler,A.N.(197).IdeologicalMotivationsofPrivatizationinGreatBritainVersus DevelopingCountries.JournalofInternationalAfairs,50(2),391-408.
Miner,B.(197,Spring).LesonsfromEngland:Charters,Choice,andStandards. RethinkingSchols,p.8-9.
Mockler,J.(194).Myths,Markets,andSchols.InL.Bilingsley(Ed.),Voiceson Choice:TheEducationReformDebate(p.59-63).SanFrancisco:PacificResearch
InstituteforPublicPolicy.
Moe,T.(194).TheBritishBatleforChoice.InL.Bilingsley(Ed.),VoicesonChoice: TheEducationReformDebate(p.23-3).SanFrancisco:PacificResearchInstitutefor
PublicPolicy.
Molnar,A.(196).GivingKidstheBusines:TheComercializationofAmerica’s Schols.Boulder,CO:WestviewPres.
41

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 40
MultinationalMonitor.(19,January/February).TheInsanityDefense.Multinational Monitor, p. 5.
Murdock,D.(198,June).Maverick:FormerCongresmanFloydFlakeChartsan IndependentCourse.Headway,p.7-9.
Nathan,J.(196a).CharterSchols:CreatingHopeandOportunityforAmerican Education.SanFrancisco,CA:Josey-Bas.
Nathan,J.(196b,Winter).ProgresivesShouldSuportCharterPublicSchols. RethinkingSchols,p.20-1.
Nathan,J.(197,February19).Comentary:TheCharterScholMovementIs GrowingBecauseIt’sWorking.EducationWekontheWeb.RetrievedonAugust1,
198fromtheWorldWideWeb:.
Nathan,J.(198,March).HeatandLightintheCharterScholMovement.PhiDelta Kapan,p.49-505.
Nathan,J.,&Power,J.(196).Policy-MakersViewtheCharterScholMovement:The CenterforScholChange,HumphreyInstitute,UniversityofMinesota.
NationalEducationAsociation.(198,January).WalkingOutforDemocracy.NEA Today,p.1.
NationalGovernors’Asociation.(1986).TimeforResults.Washington,DC:Author.
O’Neil,A.-M.(196).PrivatisingPublicPolicy PrivilegingMarketManand IndividualisingEquality:StructuralAdjustmentandthePoliticsofGenderandEducation inAotearoa/NewZealand.PaperpresentedattheanualconferenceoftheAmerican EducationalResearchAsociation,NewYork.
Oetle,K.(197).HasThereBenaChangeofParadigminManagerialEconomicsFrom thePublicEnterpriseTowardtheRegulated(Privatized)Enterprise?AnalsofPublicand Co-OperativeEconomy,68(3),367-7.
Openshaw,R.(196).TheColapseofaNewZealandPost-PrimaryEducational Setlement.Education,ResearchandPerspectives,23(1),124-45.
Pary,T.R.(197).HowWilScholsRespondtotheIncentivesofPrivatization?: EvidencefromChileandImplicationsfortheUnitedStates.AmericanReviewofPublic
Administration,27(3),248-69.
Pening,N.(197,August).ThePresident’sLeadonCharters.TheSchol Administrator, p. 32.
Peters,M.,&Marshal,J.(196).IndividualismandComunity:EducationandSocial PolicyinthePostmodernCondition.London;Washington,DC:FalmerPres.
Peterson,P.E.(190).MonopolyandCompetitioninAmericanEducation.InW.H.Clune &J.F.Wite(Eds.),ChoiceandControlinAmericanEducation,Volume1:TheTheoryof
ChoiceandControlinEducation(Vol.1,p.47-78).London:TheFalmerPres. 42

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 41
Petronio,M.A.(196).CambridgeParentsInteractwithaControledScholChoice Plan.PaperpresentedattheanualmetingoftheAmericanEducationalResearch Asociation,NewYork.
Plank,D.,&Sykes,G.(197).EfectsofCharterScholsandInterdistrictChoice. RemarksmadeattheMichiganStateUniversityColegeofEducation,PolicyForum,East Lansing,MI.RetrievedonJanuary21,19fromtheWorldWideWeb:
Pole,C.(198,June).Trailblazers’TaleofEarlyWoe.Inc.,p.27.
Power,S.,Halpin,D.,&Fitz,J.(194).UnderpiningChoiceandDiversity?The Grant-MaintainedScholsPolicyinContext.InS.Tomlinson(Ed.),EducationalReform anditsConsequences(p.(inWalford,197OxfordEdReview)onuniforms).London: IPR/RiversOram.
Power,S.,&Whity,G.(197).EducationReforminGreatBritain:AnInterim Review.EducationalAdministrationQuarterly,3(2),136-9.
Pres,E.(196,November).WheretheLiberalsAre.TheProgresive,p.2-4.
Price,J.H.,&Hunker,P.G.(198,June2).America’sQuietRevolution.Insighton theNews,p.40-2.
PublicAgenda.(19).ExpertCritiques:DianeRavitch(Interview).PublicAgenda Online.RetrievedonMarch8,19fromtheWorldWideWeb:
Raferty,F.(19,January15).DowningStrettoRuleonCouncils.TheTimes EducationSuplement.RetrievedontheisuedatefromtheWorldWideWeb:

Reay,D.,&Bal,S.J.(197).’SpoiltforChoice’:TheWorkingClasesand EducationalMarkets.OxfordReviewofEducation,23(1),89-101.
Rebarber,T.(197).CharterScholInovations:KeystoEfectiveCharterReform (PolicyStudy28):ReasonPublicPolicyInstitute.
Reves,R.(197,June6).WhatIfFranceIsRightandWe’reWrong?TheBufalo News, p. C3.
RethinkingSchols.(196).CharterSchols:PotentialsandPitfals.InR.Lowe,B. Miner,L.Miler,B.Peterson,&R.Tenorio(Eds.),SelingOutOurSchols:Vouchers, Markets,andtheFutureofPublicEducation(p.45-9).Milwauke,WI:Rethinking Schols.
Rhim,L.M.(198).FranchisingPublicEducation:AnAnalysisoftheLinkageof CharterScholsandPrivateManagementCompanies.Paperpresentedattheanual conferenceoftheAmericanEducationalResearchAsociation,SanDiego.
Ritzer,G.(196).TheMcDonaldizationofSociety:AnInvestigationintotheChanging CharacterofContemporarySocialLife(Rev.ed.).ThousandOaks,CA:PineForge Pres.
43

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 42
Rofes,E.(196).Charters:FindingtheCourageToFaceOurContradictions.InR. Lowe,B.Miner,L.Miler,B.Peterson,&R.Tenorio(Eds.),SelingOutOurSchols: Vouchers,Markets,andtheFutureofPublicEducation(p.50-1).Milwauke,WI: RethinkingSchols.
Rofes,E.(198,March/April).CharterScholsExpand:WilTheyEncouragePublic ScholReform?DolarsandSense,p.27-31.
Rothstein,R.,Celis,W.,Corson,R.,Coper,S.,&Farber,P.(198).Charter Conundrum.TheAmericanProspect(39),46-61.
Royed,T.J.(196).TestingtheMandateModelinBritainandtheUnitedStates: EvidencefromtheReaganandThatcherEras.BritishJournalofPoliticalScience,26(1),
45-81.
Schneider,A.M.(198,June).TrackingtheCharterScholMovement.ScholBusines Afairs,p.17-23.
Schneider,M.,Marschal,M.,Teske,P.,&Roch,C.(198).ScholChoiceand CultureWarsintheClasrom:WhatDiferentParentsSekfromEducation.Social ScienceQuarterly,79(3),489-501.
Seabrok,J.(198,December).TheRacketersofIlusion.TheNewInternationalist, p.2-3.
Shepard,R.(198,July6).AScholFailure:AlbertaRethinksItsCharterSchols afteraClosureinCalgary.Maclean’s,p.52-3.
Shokrai,N.(196,November/December).FreatLast:BlackAmericaSignsupfor ScholChoice.PolicyReview.RetrievedonMarch16,19fromtheWorldWideWeb: .
Sides,P.,&Decker,E.(197,Spring).EAIToRunCharters.RethinkingSchols,p. 10.
Smith,K.B.,&Meier,K.J.(195).TheCaseAgainstScholChoice:Politics,Markets, andFols.Armonk,NY:M.E.Sharpe.
Sobran,J.(195,December25).LitleDiferenceinGOP,Democrats.LansingState Journal, p. 8A.
Stanfield,R.L.(197,September27).ATurningTideonVouchers.NationalJournal, p.191-3.
StateofNewYork.(19).Senate781.Albany,NY:StateofNewYork.
Stearns,K.(196).ScholReform:LesonsfromEngland.Princeton,NJ:Carnegie FoundationfortheAdvancementofTeaching.
Taub,A.,&Weisman,R.(198,November).Oligopoly!HighlyConcentratedMarkets AcrostheU.S.Economy.MultinationalMonitor,p.9-12.
Thatcher,M.(193).TheDowningStretYears,1979-190.NewYork: HarperPerenial.
4 BESTCOPYAVAILABLE

Diversification&DuplicationinCharter&GMSchols 43
Thomas,G.,Vas,P.,&McCleland,R.(197).ParentsinaMarket-Place:Some ResponsestoInformation,DiversityandPower.EducationalResearch,39(2),185-94.
Thrup,M.(198).ExploringthePoliticsofBlame:ScholInspectionandIts ContestationinNewZealandandEngland.ComparativeEducation,34(2),195-208.
Toch,T.(196,January8).DoFirmsRunScholsWel?U.S.News&WorldReport, p.46-9.
Toch,T.(198,April27).TheNewEducationBazar.U.S.News&WorldReport, p.34-42.
Toch,T.,Benefield,R.M.,&Bernstein,A.(196,April1).TheCaseforTough Standards.U.S.News&WorldReport,p.52-6.
Toley,J.(197).OnScholChoiceandSocialClas:AResponsetoBal,Boweand Gewirtz.BritishJournalofSociologyofEducation,18(2),217-30.
TorontoStar.(197,November17).Editorial:DraconianDetailsofToryBil160.The TorontoStar.RetrievedonMarch8,19fromtheWorldWideWeb: .
TorontoStar.(19,January4).Editorial:EndCokie-CuterAproachtoEducation. TheTorontoStar.RetrievedonMarch8,19fromtheWorldWideWeb: .
Tulock,G.(196).ProvisionofPublicGodsthroughPrivatization.Kyklos,49(2), 21-5.
Tyack,D.,Kirst,M.W.,&Hansot,E.(1980).EducationalReform:Retrospectand Prospect.TeachersColegeRecord,81(3),253-69.
Tyack,D.B.(190).ThePublicSchols:AMonopolyoraContestedPublicDomain?In W.H.Clune&J.F.Wite(Eds.),ChoiceandControlinAmericanEducation,Volume1: TheTheoryofChoiceandControlinEducation(Vol.1,p.86-90).London:Falmer.
Van,B.J.(198).AnUrbanScholNetwork’sResistancetoaCompetitionPolicy: DefendingComunitarianAcountabilityinEngland.EducationandUrbanSociety,30 (4), 516-30.
Vanourek,G.,Mano,B.V.,Fin,C.E.,&Bierlein,L.A.(197).CharterScholsin Action.Indianapolis,IN;Washington,DC:HudsonInstitute.
Vine,P.(197,September8/15).ToMarket,ToMarket.TheScholBusinesSels KidsShort.TheNation,p.1-7.
Walford,G.(192).EducationalChoiceandEquityinGreatBritain.EducationalPolicy, 6(2),123-38.
Walford,G.(197a).Diversity,Choice,andSelectioninEnglandandWales. EducationalAdministrationQuarterly,3(2),158-69.
Walford,G.(197b).Introduction.OxfordReviewofEducation,23(1),3-4. 45

Related posts

Steve Denning Connects the Dots in the Mueller Investigation

V4tgDpeDBhQGUBa7

Ohio: Fordham Knocks Stephen Dyer for His Criticism of Charters; Dyer Strikes Back

V4tgDpeDBhQGUBa7

John Thompson Reviews David Denby’s “Lit Up”

V4tgDpeDBhQGUBa7

Matt Barnum: “Reformers” on Local School Boards Create New Organization to Promote Portfolio Model

V4tgDpeDBhQGUBa7

Lordy, Lordy! Bill Gates Has a New Idea. Run. Hide. Protect the Children and the Teachers

V4tgDpeDBhQGUBa7

Jan Resseger: Eight Essential Facts About Charter Schools

V4tgDpeDBhQGUBa7

Red Queen in LA: Deciphering the Charter Chaos and Shape-Shifting

V4tgDpeDBhQGUBa7

Salt Lake Tribune Denounces Charter Profiteering

V4tgDpeDBhQGUBa7

Oklahoma: Epic Virtual Charter Severs Ties to Co-Founders’ For-Profit Firm After Paying Them Millions

V4tgDpeDBhQGUBa7

Leave a Comment